Impact microindentation (IMI) measures bone material strength index (BMSi) in vivo. However, clinical risk factors that affect BMSi are largely unknown. This study investigated associations between BMSi and clinical risk factors for fracture in men. BMSi was measured using the OsteoProbe in 357 men (ages 33 to 96 years) from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Risk factors included age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), parental hip fracture, prior fracture, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), secondary osteoporosis, smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, medications, diseases, and low serum vitamin D levels. BMSi was negatively associated with age (r = -0.131, P = 0.014), weight (r = -0.109, P = 0.040), and BMI (r = -0.083, P = 0.001); no correlations were detected with BMD (r = 0.000, P = 0.998) or height (r = 0.087, P = 0.10). Mean BMSi values for men with and without prior fracture were 80.2 ± 6.9 vs 82.8 ± 6.1 (P = 0.024); parental hip fracture, 80.1 ± 6.1 vs 82.8 ± 6.9 (P = 0.029); and T2DM, 80.3 ± 8.5 vs 82.9 ± 6.6 (P = 0.059). BMSi did not differ in the presence vs absence of other risk factors. In multivariable models, mean (± SD) BMSi remained associated with prior fracture and parental hip fracture after adjusting for age and BMI: prior fracture (80.5 ± 1.1 vs 82.8 ± 0.4, P = 0.044); parental fracture (79.9 ± 1.2 vs 82.9 ± 0.4, P = 0.015). No other confounders were identified. We conclude that in men, BMSi discriminates prior fracture and parental hip fracture, which are both known to increase the risk for incident fracture. These findings suggest that IMI may be useful for identifying men who have an increased risk for fracture.